Daftar Haji Onh Plus Paket Ongkos Biaya Murah

Setiap jamaah yang berangkat umroh atau haji khusus Call/Wa. 08111-34-1212 pasti menginginkan perjalanan ibadah haji plus atau umrohnya bisa terlaksana dengan lancar, nyaman dan aman sehingga menjadi mabrur. Demi mewujudkan kami sangat memahami keinginan para jamaah sehingga merancang program haji onh plus dan umroh dengan tepat. Jika anda ingin melaksanakan Umrah dan Haji dengan tidak dihantui rasa was-was dan serta ketidakpastian, maka Alhijaz Indowisata Travel adalah solusi sebagai biro perjalanan anda yang terbaik dan terpercaya.?agenda umroh 12 hari

Biro Perjalanan Haji dan Umrah yang memfokuskan diri sebagai biro perjalanan yang bisa menjadi sahabat perjalanan ibadah Anda, yang sudah sangat berpengalaman dan dipercaya sejak tahun 2010, mengantarkan tamu Allah minimal 5 kali dalam sebulan ke tanah suci tanpa ada permasalahan. Paket yang tersedia sangat beragam mulai paket umroh 9 hari, 12 hari, umroh wisata muslim turki, dubai, aqso. Biaya umroh murah yang sudah menggunakan rupiah sehingga jamaah tidak perlu repot dengan nilai tukar kurs asing. daftar haji Subang

 

            Pada awal kehidaupan manusia, sampah belum menjadi masalah, tetapi dangan bertambahnya penduduk di mana ruang tetap, semakin hari maslahnya semakin besar. Hal ini jelas bila kita melihat moderenissasi kehidupan, perkembangan teknologi, sehingga meningkatkan aktivitas manusia. Sehubungan dengaan kegiatan manusia, maka permasalahan sampah akan berkaitan baik dari segi social ekonomi maupun budaya.
            Kesehatan seorang maupun masyarakat merupakan masalah social yang selalu berkaitan antara komponen-komponen yang ada dalam masyarakat. Sampah bila dapat diamankan tidak menjadi potensi yang berpengaruh terhadap lingkungan. Namun demikian sebagaimana telah diutarakan di atas, bahwa sampah yang dikelola tidak berada pada tempat yang menjamin keamanan lingkungan, sehingga mempunyai dampak terhadap kesehatan lingkungan. Sampah yang tidak dikelola dengan baik ini akan menjadi bermacam-macam fungsinya, Antara lain :
1.      Sebagai sarana penularana penyakit. Hal ini timbbul karena sampah basah (garbage) dapat menjadi tempat bersarangnya  dan berkembangbiaknya dari bermacam-macam Vektor penularan penyakit. Vektor yang dimaksud adalah: lalat, Kecoak, nyamuk, dan tikus.
·         Kebiasaan lalat: Lalat biasa hidup di tempat-tempat yang kotor dan tertarik akan bau yang busuk. Benda-benda yang ber bau busuk juga merupakan makanan lalat. Sampah, terutama sampah basah, cepat berbau busuk, sehingga merupakan tempat berkembangbiak dan tempat makanan lalat.
·         Kebiasaan kecoak: Kecoak senang tinggal di tempat-tempat yang lembab, berbau, dan keadaan gelap. Tumpukan sampah yang lembab, berbau, dan terdapat banyak celah-celah yang gelap merupakan tempat berkembang biaknya kecoak. Lalat  dan kecoak merupakan vector penularan penyakit saluran pencernaan (perut) seperti: diseentri, basiller, disentri amoeba, cholera, typhus abdominalis, diare karena bakteri, dsb.
·         Kebiasaan nyamuk: Nyamuk khususnya nyamuk aedes dan culex suka bersarang pada genangan air. Sampah dari barang- barang seperti kaleng, kantong plastic, pecahan gelas/botol menjadi tempat genagan air jika hujan turun, tempat ini sangat disenangi nyamuk aedes sebagai tempat ber kembangnya. Nyamuk merupakan vector penularan penyakit demam berdarah, kaki gajah, dan malaria.
·         Kebiasaan tikus: Tikus umumnya suka bersarang pada tempat yang banyak makanan, tempat-tempat yag lembab, dan celah-celaj yang gelap sebagai tempat persembunyiannya. Sampah basah masih banyak mengandung sisa makanan, agak lembab, dan terdapat celah-celah untuk bersembunyi edari ancama musuh tikus. Oleh karenanya tikus suka bersarang di tempat pembuangan sampah. Tikus merupakan vector penularan pes.
2.      Di samping penularan penyakit infeksi saluran pencernaan, di dalam tumpukan sampah basah kadang-kadang mengandung telur cacing. Apabila sampah basah ini diberikan untuk pakan ternak seperti babi tanpa dimasak terlebih dahulu, maka babi tersebut dapat terjangkit penyakit cacingan misalnya Trichinosis, penyababnya adalah cacing Trichinella spiralis. Jika daging babi tersebut tidak sempurna memasaknya kemudian dikonsumsi oleh manusia, maka manusia pun dapat terjangkit penyakit cacing Trichinella.
3.      Dari sampah juga juga dapat menjadi penyabab penyakit lain seperti penyakit kulit dan jamur.
4.      Kemudian selain itu, dampak dari pembuangan sampah yang tidak memenuhi syarat keamanan lingkungan dan kesehatan, misalnya membuang sampah secara sembarangan akan mengakibatkan pencemaran lingkungan meliputi pencemaran tanah, air, dan udara. Sampah-sampah yang dibuang sebagian besar merupakan sampah organic. Bahan-bahan organic ini mengalami pembusukan secara biologis oleh jasad-jasad renik/mikroba yang bersifat aerobic. Selain itu juga terjadi proses pembusukan sampah organic berlangsung secara anaerobic yang berlangsung lama dan akhirnya akan dapat menghasilkan humus yang sangat berguna untuk penyuburran tanah dan perbaikan kondisi tanah. Namun dampak negatifnya lebih banyak, di mana:
·         Sampah-sampah plastic, pecahan kaca, karet, dan bahan-bahan yang sukar membusuk akan mencemari tanah sehingga dalam waktu lama tidak dapat ditanami lagi (lahan kritis).
·         Hasil proses pembusukan sampah oleh jasad renik menghasilkan gas-gas seperti: CO2, H2S, CH4, dan NH3, maka udara tercemar oleh gas-gas tersebut dan menimbulkan bau yang tidak sedap. Disamping itu, jika ada sampah yang terbakar maka asap-asap yang mengepul ke udara mencemari udara kaena adanya gas CO2 danCO.
·         Air rembesan hasil dari proses pembusukan saampah akan mengalami perporasi yang mengandung bahan terlarut yang dapat berbahaya untuk kesehatan, dapat mencemari air tanah, serta badab-badan air yang berada dekat dengan tempat pembuangan akhir sampah apabila tidak dilakukan pengawasan yang baik.
      5. Hasil pembusukan sampah dapt juga menggangu keseimbangan ekosistem, terjadinya              &nb sp;              penyuburan pada badan-badan air karena menerima nutrien-nutrien hasil pembusukan sampah memungkinkan terjadinya ledakan populasi tumbuhan air seperti eceng gondok dan akan mengganggu biota lain.
 
 
source : http://hizbussalam.blogspot.com
HUBUNGAN SAMPAH DAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

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