MAU UMROH BERSAMA TRAVEL TERBAIK DI INDONESIA ALHIJAZ INDO WISTA..?

YOOK LANGSUNG WHATSAPP AJA KLIK DISINI 811-1341-212
 

Istilah busana merupakan istilah yang sudah tidak asing lagi bagi kita semua. Istilah busana berasal dari bahasa sanskerta yaitu ”bhusana” dan istilah yang popular dalam bahasa Indonesia yaitu ”busana” yang dapat diartikan ”pakaian”. Namun demikian pengertian busana dan pakaian terdapat sedikit perbedaan, di mana busana mempunyai konotasi ”pakaian yang bagus atau indah” yaitu pakaian yang serasi, harmonis, selaras, enak dipandang, nyaman melihatnya, cocok dengan pemakai serta sesuai dengan kesempatan. Sedangkan pakaian adalah bagian dari busana itu sendiri. Busana dalam pengertian luas adalah segala sesuatu yang dipakai mulai dari kepala sampai ujung kaki yang memberi kenyamanan dan menampilkan keindahan bagi sipemakai. Secara garis besar busana meliputi: 1. Busana mutlak yaitu busana yang tergolong busana pokok seperti baju, rok, kebaya, blus, bebe dan lain-lain, termasuk pakaian dalam seperti singlet, bra, celana dalam dan lain sebagainya. 2. Milineris yaitu pelengkap busana yang sifatnya melengkapi busana mutlak, serta mempunyai nilai guna di samping juga untuk keindahan seperti sepatu, tas, topi, kaus kaki, kaca mata, selendang, scraf, shawl, jam tangan dan lain-lain. 3. Aksesoris yaitu pelengkap busana yang sifatnya hanya untuk menambah keindahan sipemakai seperti cincin, kalung, leontin, bross dan lain sebagainya. Dari uraian di atas jelaslah bahwa busana tidak hanya terbatas pada pakaian seperti rok, blus atau celana saja, tetapi merupakan kesatuan dari keseluruhan yang kita pakai mulai dari kepala sampai ke ujung kaki, baik yang sifatnya pokok maupun sebagai pelengkap yang bernilai guna atau untuk perhiasan. Pemahaman hal di atas sangat penting sekali bagi seseorang yang akan berkecimpung di bidang tata busana. Pemakaian istilah busana dalam Bahasa Inggris sangat beragam, tergantung pada konteks yang dikemukakan, seperti: a. Fashion lebih difokuskan pada mode yang umumnya ditampilkan seperti istilah-istilah mode yang sedang digemari masyarakat yaitu in fashion, mode yang dipamerkan atau diperagakan disebut fashion show, sedangkan pencipta mode dikatakan fashion designer, dan buku mode disebut fashion book. b. Costume. Istilah ini berkaitan dengan jenis busana seperti busana nasional yaitu national costume, busana muslim disebut moslem costume, busana daerah disebut traditional costume. c. Clothing, dapat diartikan sandang yaitu busana yang berkaitan dengan kondisi atau situasi seperti busana untuk musim dingin disebut winter clothing, busana musim panas yaitu summer clothing dan busana untuk musim semi disebut spring cloth. d. Dress, dapat diartikan gaun, rok, blus yaitu busana yang menunjukkan kesempatan tertentu, misalnya busana untuk kesempatan resmi disebut dress suit, busana seragam dikatakan dress uniform dan busana untuk pesta disebut dress party. Dress juga menunjukkan model pakaian tertentu seperti long dress, sack dress dan Malaysian dress. e. Wear, istilah ini dipakai untuk menunjukkan jenis busana itu sendiri, contoh busana anak disebut children’s wear, busana pria disebut men’s wear dan busana wanita disebut women’s wear. Istilah terkait pengertian busana : tata busana, pengertian tata busana, pengertian busana muslim, busana pesta

BAJU CASUAL

Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

Artikel lainnya »